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18 Nov When the uninformed comments of the younger folks resounded throughout the group, the older men and women in my family stopped the The significance of this opportunity for my family (and for other families) is pivotal in the preservation of African American culture as elders step forward to teach and. No hand-wringing here-- more of an effort to describe and understand how college students are relating to each other and to sex, plus an analysis of how all of this fits into the broader cult Fascinating, insightful, scientific, and sensitive, American Hookup takes a close look at the culture of casual sex on college campuses. 21 Feb We, therefore, are unable to examine dating rituals across groups that may have differing sexual orientations. Our primary variables of interest are gender (coded “ 1” if female and “0” if male) and race (coded “1” if African American and “0” if White). Other sociodemographic characteristics have been shown.
The following guides emphasize information that can be used to stimulate thinking about cultural differences and prompt questions that will help providers understand how their patients identify with and express their cultural backgrounds. These are not fact lists to apply indiscriminately. The family may be matriarchal, although father or mother may take on the decision-making role. For African Americans, women more than men tend to remain unmarried, and more women click been educated at the college level.
In general, the older generation is more conservative, may have a more traditional view of gender roles, and may shun interracial dating and marriage.
Elders are respected and often provide care for their grandchildren. Institutionalization of elders has historically been avoided, with sons and daughters taking on the family caretaker role.
Many African Americans like hearty meals that may include meat, fish, greens, rice, grits, white and sweet potatoes, corn, turnips, eggplant, peanuts, and homemade desserts.
Leafy greens may include spinach, collards, mustard, kale, and cabbage.
Traditionally, many elders eat a large noon meal on Sunday after church. The idea of what soul food is differs greatly among African Americans.
Soul food may refer to meals made with fried chicken, pork chops, chitterlings, grits, cornbread, macaroni and cheese, and hushpuppies.
Okra is the principal ingredient in gumbo, a Creole stew, and is believed to have spiritual and healthful properties. Many of these foods found their way from the south to the north via the Mississippi River.
Cajun and Creole cooking, which originated from the French and Spanish in Louisiana, was changed in character and composition by the influence of African cooks. InAfrican Americans were more than twice as likely as whites to eat a recommended diet of fruit, vegetables, fat, fiber, and calcium.
By28 percent of this population was reported to have a poor-quality diet, compared to 16 percent of whites. A poor quality diet often can be attributed to greater access to packaged, processed, and fast foods; the common practice of using fats in cooking; and the high cost of fresh produce and lean meat. And fast foot companies have specifically targeted African American check this out as a growing market for their products.
Although many African Americans eat foods such as greens, beans, and rice, which are rich in nutrients, economic issues and deep-rooted dietary habits create challenges for changing behaviors and lowering disease risk in this population.
However, through health education and increased awareness of healthy eating practices, African Americans are replacing traditional pork products with turkey, fried foods with baked foods, and starchy vegetables with tomatoes and green vegetables. National programs to improve diet quality and the overall health of African Americans and other minority groups have been initiated. A Celebration of Health Eating and Living for African Americans offers information targeted to African Americans on eating a health diet rich in fruits and vegetables.
African Americans often have strong religious affiliations.
Maintaining good health is associated with good religious practice. Many churches maintain a health ministry, through which congregations and parish nurses support good health with flu shots, blood pressure checks, and health education. Before the advent of health ministries, African American churches had mission volunteers who attended services and administered to parishioners.
African Americans are becoming increasingly health conscious, seeking health screenings and treatments, although health literacy in this population tends to vary by generation. Because they may be reluctant to share personal or family issues, building a trusting relationship is key. Sickle cell anemia is the most common genetically inherited condition in African Americans. They also exhibit a higher incidence of lactose intolerance, periodontal disease, and have common skin problems such as melasma discoloration of the face and other pigment disorders.
A family-centered approach is recommended for conveying serious medical information, seeking consents, and explaining issues such as autopsy and organ donation. Cremation is generally avoided in this community and organ donation may be viewed by some as a desecration of the body.
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Because of the importance of family in the African American culture, the family should be informed of an impending death so that extended family members who live out African-american Hookup Rituals In Other Cultures And Groups state can be notified. In the African American community, death is an important aspect of culture, with unique traditions, mourning practices, burial rites, and even the structure of cemeteries.
Rather than a time of sadness, death is a time to celebrate that the deceased no longer has to endure the trials of the earthly world. Some present day customs associated with death can be traced back to African roots. Customs have been passed down in the form of expressions, superstitions, religious check this out, and music.
At the time of death, old beliefs and superstitions are remembered and may be acted upon, such as not burying the deceased on a rainy day or burying the deceased with feet facing east to allow rising on Judgment Day. Efforts to reduce health disparities must be holistic, addressing the physical, emotional, and spiritual health of individuals and families. Also important is making connections with community members and recognizing conditions in the community.
Get to know your patients on an individual level. Not all patients from diverse populations conform to commonly known culture-specific behaviors, beliefs, and actions. Generalizations in this material may not apply to your patients. The following cultural patterns may represent many American Indians, but do not represent all people in a community. The American Indian concept of family includes immediate and extended family members, as well as community and tribal members. Women are the traditional care givers.
Grandparents help counsel and care for their grandchildren, and children are expected to respect and care for their elders and take pride in their culture. At powwows, elders are served meals first and are given special seating areas. Indian communities encourage education with an emphasis on the unique cultural legacies of the community.
Younger people often leave home to become educated, then return to help their families and tribes. The traditional diet of American Indians was generally nutritious and low in fat, but today a typical diet is similar to that of the general US population, although it is often poorer in quality, consists of high-fat, salty, and sugary foods, and lacks sufficient fruit, vegetables, grains, and dairy products.
Indians are more likely to report not having enough to eat than other US households. Traditionally, the Anishinabe and Dakota ate fresh or dried wild game and foul and gathered wild rice, berries, acorns, ginger, and leaves and twigs for teas. They planted potatoes, corn, pumpkins, squash, and turnips, and made maple syrup. Fish, the principal food of the Anishinabe, was boiled, cooked over a fire on a stick, or eaten in soup, and was dried, salted, or frozen in the snow African-american Hookup Rituals In Other Cultures And Groups preserve.
Spirituality is see more to the identity of the American Indian, and is viewed holistically. People and nature are interconnected.
Young adults For many Asians, young adulthood means achieving for the family. African-American preachers tend to perform rather than simply speak. University of California Press;
Every animate and inanimate form of life has a spirit and is considered sacred. For example, water is viewed as a sacred, life-sustaining source and a way of connecting with the earth. The head and hair are considered particularly sacred. Respecting and nurturing life and developing a positive relationship with the spirits is core to Indian spirituality. Indians nurture that relationship through prayer and a purification ritual in a sweat lodge. They burn sage and sweet grass, and smoke a special ceremonial tobacco for cleansing, blessings, and healing.
Drumming, dancing, and singing also are traditional spiritual expressions associated with healing. American Indians have endured decades of assimilation policies designed to strip them of their identity and integrate them into the dominant society.
A religious person may be called to administer a sacrament to the patient. Among men, hanging out with friends of a dating partner seems to be a more salient activity for Whites. Thanks to their relative isolation and strong community life, they've preserved their African cultural history.
Many Indian people who grew up in the mid-twentieth century describe a feeling of shame in their heritage during that time. This was partly due source the fact that it was illegal for Indians to practice their religious ceremonies until the American Indian Religious Freedom Act was passed in As a result, many Indians today have Christian ties or practice no religion at all.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the top causes of death in the American Indian population are heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, diabetes, and stroke.
Obesity, smoking, and alcohol abuse in this population are related to many of these diseases. Because their lands are sovereign nations, Indians are not subject to taxes or to state laws prohibiting the sale and promotion of tobacco products to minors. Chronic cigarette smoking and spit tobacco used by this population have increased its risk of developing tobacco-related health problems, such as heart disease, cancer, and stroke.
Because health is related to spirituality in Indian culture, sickness may be viewed as a result of disharmony between the sources of life. A patient may seek western medicine for treatment as well as medicine from a traditional healer—a medicine man—to address the disharmony that caused the illness. The medicine man has been given the power to heal through his relationship with spiritual beings.
Spirits work through him, helping him diagnose and treat physical and spiritual illness. Traditionally, the medicine man is chosen by the spirits and comes from a specific family lineage. His life is hard because he cannot continue reading a request for treatment and never charges for his services.
Indian patients may be reluctant to discuss use African-american Hookup Rituals In Other Cultures And Groups these traditional practices with a clinician. Indians have been taught to resist any expression of pain. Although they may not express pain directly, they may report feeling uncomfortable or may use storytelling or circular conversation to build trust and describe symptoms. Direct eye contact is often avoided out of respect or out of concern for soul loss.
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Time and silence are often used to prepare to listen, to maintain harmony, and to be non-confrontational. Patients may occasionally be late or miss appointments because of a different perception of the concept of time—time orientation for Indians has been traditionally cyclical and present-oriented compared to the linear, future-oriented concept of time in Western culture.
Because of the importance of family in American Indian culture, immediate and extended family members should be informed of an impending death. A family-centered approach is recommended for conveying serious medical information and explaining issues African-american Hookup Rituals In Other Cultures And Groups as autopsy and organ donation. Organ donation may be viewed as a desecration of the body.
The entire family may be included when making decisions and signing documents. Due to the misuse of signed documents throughout the history of the American Indian, some Indian patients may be unwilling to sign informed consents, advance directives, and durable power of attorney forms. Patients may perceive verbal agreement as sufficient. Honoring ancestors is especially important in Indian culture. Several Indian nations across the US are currently in the process of attempting to retrieve the remains of ancestors that have been unearthed by archeologists so they can be properly buried.
Immigration of Asian Indians to America has taken place in several waves, in the s, the early s, and the s mainlystudents and professionals. The elimination of read article quotas in prompted successively larger waves of Indian immigrants in the s and s, and with the technology boom of the s, the largest influx of Asian Indians arrived between and This population is among the fastest growing ethnic groups in the U.
Census has used the term Asian Indian for immigrants who came to America from India, the terms East Indian and South Asian are also commonly used terms for this population.
Indians in the U. Although legally abolished for many years, the caste system still influences social relations in India.